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Rectal Cancer Treatment In Mumbai



Dr. Praveen Kammar is a highly regarded medical professional with a specialization in the diagnosis and treatment of Rectal Cancer. Rectal cancer is a type of malignancy that occurs in the rectum, which is the last several inches of the large intestine, closest to the anus. It’s part of a broader category of cancers known as colorectal cancers.

Common symptoms often include changes in bowel habits, rectal bleeding, and weight loss. Dr. Kammar’s comprehensive and empathetic approach focuses on patient education, preventive measures, advanced diagnostic techniques, and cutting-edge treatment options, ensuring the best possible outcomes for his patients. His commitment to patient care and ongoing research in the field of Rectal Cancer has made him a renowned figure in this medical specialty.

Types of Rectal Cancer

Rectal cancer, a subtype of colorectal cancer, primarily forms in the tissues of the rectum — the final part of the large intestine. The types of rectal cancer are classified based on the type of cells from which the cancer originates. Here are the main types:

  1. Adenocarcinomas: This is the most common type of rectal cancer, accounting for about 95% of cases. Adenocarcinomas start in cells that produce mucus to lubricate the inside of the rectum. 


  2. Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors: These begin in the hormone-making cells of the intestine. They are relatively rare and typically grow slower than adenocarcinomas.


  3. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GISTs): GISTs are rare tumors that start in specialized cells in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract, known as the interstitial cells of Cajal. They can be found anywhere in the digestive tract, but it’s unusual for them to start in the rectum.


  4. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system cells that typically start in lymph nodes, but they can also begin in the rectum or other organs.


  5. Sarcomas: Sarcomas can start in blood vessels, muscle layers, or other connective tissues in the wall of the rectum. Rectal sarcomas are rare.

    Each type of rectal cancer has its own unique set of symptoms, diagnostic methods, and treatment strategies. It’s important to consult with an oncologist if you experience any potential signs of these diseases for appropriate diagnosis and treatment. 

Ovarian cancer is a severe health issue that originates in the ovaries, the female reproductive glands. Often undetected until advanced stages due to subtle symptoms like bloating, pelvic pain, or frequent urination, it can be challenging to treat. Risk factors include age, inherited gene mutations, family history of ovarian cancer, and endometriosis.

However, if caught early, ovarian cancer is highly treatable and associated with long-term survival. Regular screenings and awareness about this condition are crucial for early detection and successful treatment. Trust your oncologist for guidance and care in this health journey.

Signs and symptoms of Rectal Cancer

Rectal cancer may not present symptoms in its early stages. However, as the disease progresses, various signs and symptoms may emerge. Here are some key indications to watch out for:

  1. Changes in Bowel Habits
  2. Rectal Bleeding or Blood in Stool
  3. Persistent Abdominal Discomfort
  4. Weakness or Fatigue
  5. Unexplained Weight Loss
  6. Iron Deficiency Anemia
  7. Feeling that the bowel doesn’t empty completely

It’s important to note that these symptoms can also be caused by conditions other than rectal cancer, such as hemorrhoids, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, if you experience any of these symptoms consistently, it’s crucial to consult an oncologist for a proper evaluation and diagnosis.

Causes of Rectal Cancer

Rectal cancer occurs when healthy cells in the rectum develop errors in their DNA. These errors cause the cells to grow and divide uncontrollably, forming a tumor. Over time, the cancerous cells can invade and destroy normal tissue and spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body.

While the exact cause of rectal cancer is not known, several risk factors are associated with its development:

  1. Age: Rectal cancer is more common in people over 50, though it can occur at any age.


  2. Diet: Diets high in red meat and processed foods have been linked to an increased risk of rectal cancer.


  3. Lifestyle Factors: Obesity, lack of physical activity, smoking, and heavy alcohol use can increase the risk of rectal cancer.


  4. Personal History: People who have had colorectal cancer, polyps in the colon or rectum, or inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis) are at higher risk.


  5. Family History: Those with a parent, sibling, or child who has had colorectal cancer are at an increased risk. The risk is even higher if the relative was diagnosed when they were younger than 45, or if more than one first-degree relative is affected.


  6. Genetic Syndromes: Certain genetic syndromes passed through generations of a family can increase the risk of rectal cancer. These include familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer).


  7. Radiation Therapy for Cancer: Radiation therapy directed at the abdomen to treat previous cancers increases the risk of rectal cancer.

It’s important to note that having one or more risk factors does not guarantee the development of rectal cancer. Many people with these risk factors never develop the disease, while others with no known risk factors do. Regular screenings are recommended, especially for those with high risk.

Diagnosis of Rectal Cancer

Diagnosing rectal cancer typically involves several steps, each designed to confirm the presence of cancer and determine its size, type, and stage. Here are some common diagnostic methods:

  1. Physical Exam: This involves an oncologist checking for any abnormalities. They might perform a digital rectal exam (DRE), where a gloved, lubricated finger is inserted into the rectum to feel for any lumps or abnormalities.


  2. Fecal Occult Blood Test: This test checks for hidden blood in stool, which can be an early sign of rectal cancer.


  3. Endoscopy: There are two types of endoscopy procedures often used – sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy. Both procedures involve a flexible tube with a camera on the end being inserted into the rectum to examine the rectum and colon. If abnormal tissues are found, a biopsy can be performed during the procedure to collect samples for further testing.


  4. Imaging Tests: Tests such as CT scans, MRI scans, ultrasound, and PET scans can provide detailed images of the rectum and surrounding structures, helping to determine the extent of the cancer and whether it has spread.


  5. Biopsy: A sample of tissue from the suspicious area is removed and analyzed under a microscope. A pathologist can determine if the cells are cancerous and, if so, the type of cancer.


  6. Molecular Testing of the Tumor: Some patients may have their tumor tested for specific genes, proteins, and other factors unique to the tumor.


  7. Blood Tests: Certain blood tests, including carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) test, may help your oncologist understand your prognosis and guide your treatment.

The results from these diagnostic tests will help the oncologist develop an appropriate treatment plan. It’s important to discuss the results, risks, and benefits of each test with your oncologist.

Risk Factor of Rectal Cancer

Rectal cancer occurs due to the uncontrollable growth and division of cells in the rectum, forming a tumor. While the exact cause is unknown, several risk factors can increase the likelihood of developing this disease:

  1. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD): Conditions like ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease can increase the risk of rectal cancer. These conditions involve long-term inflammation of the colon, which can lead to cell changes that may develop into cancer over time.

  2. Family History of Cancer: Individuals with a family history of rectal or colon cancer are at a higher risk. The risk increases if the relative was diagnosed at a young age or if more than one first-degree relative has had the disease.

  3. Genetic Syndromes: Certain inherited conditions, such as familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer), significantly increase the risk of rectal cancer.

  4. Personal History of Polyps or Colorectal Cancer: Noncancerous growths in the colon or rectum (polyps) can increase the risk of rectal cancer. If you’ve already had rectal or colon cancer, your risk of a recurrence is higher.

5. Age: Although it can occur at any age, rectal cancer is more common in people over 50.

6. Type II Diabetes: There is evidence suggesting that people with type II diabetes have an increased risk of developing rectal cancer.

7. Lifestyle Factors: Factors such as a diet high in red meat and processed foods, obesity, lack of physical activity, smoking, and heavy alcohol use can also elevate the risk.

It’s important to note that having one or more risk factors does not guarantee the development of rectal cancer. Regular screenings are recommended, especially for those with high risk.

Find Hope and Expert Guidance for Rectal Cancer Treatment in Mumbai.

Treatment option for Rectal Cancer

The treatment of rectal cancer is complex and usually involves a multidisciplinary approach. The choice of treatment depends on the stage of the disease, the patient’s overall health, and personal preferences. Here are some common treatment options:


1. Surgery: This is the main treatment for all stages of rectal cancer. The goal is to remove the cancerous cells. Depending on the severity and location of the tumor, different types of surgeries may be performed, such as polypectomy (removal of polyps), local excision, total mesorectal excision (TME), and colostomy.

2. Radiation Therapy: This uses high-energy rays (similar to X-rays) to kill cancer cells. It may be used before surgery (neoadjuvant therapy) to shrink the tumor or after surgery (adjuvant therapy) to kill any remaining cancer cells.

3. Chemotherapy: This uses drugs to kill cancer cells or stop them from dividing. Like radiation therapy, chemotherapy can be used before or after surgery. It is often used in combination with radiation therapy, a treatment known as chemoradiation.

4. Targeted Therapy: These drugs specifically target the changes in cancer cells that help them grow, divide, and spread. They can be used alone or in combination with chemotherapy or radiation therapy.

5. Endoscopic / trans anal surgery: For early stage rectal cancer , in select patients endoscopic or trans-anal surgical removal may be an option. Such intervention can avoid a major surgery and is advantageous in old age, poor health condition and high surgical risk patients.

It’s important to discuss with an oncologist the potential benefits and risks of each treatment option, as well as their possible side effects. In some cases, a combination of treatments may be used.


Rectal cancer is a serious medical condition that requires immediate attention and comprehensive treatment. Diagnosis involves a variety of tests, including physical exams, endoscopies, imaging tests, biopsies, and blood tests. Risk factors for developing rectal cancer include inflammatory bowel disease, family history of cancer, certain genetic syndromes, lifestyle factors, and age.

Treatment options are diverse and typically involve a combination of surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and in some cases, active surveillance or ablation. It’s crucial to have open discussions with an oncologist about the risks, benefits, and potential side effects of each treatment option. Regular screenings and early detection can significantly improve the prognosis and survival rate for rectal cancer.

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    He’s a very good doctor. And has experience in cancer surgery. I’ve consulted him and he’s done a colon cancer surgery – laparoscopic right colon removal. Would highly recommend Dr Praveen Kammar for surgeries.

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    “I think Dr. Praveen Kammar is one of the best cancer specialists. He comes across as a dedicated professional and an even better human being. Thanks to him that I successfully underwent surgery for mouth cancer. May his tribe increase.”

    Why Dr. Praveen Kammar

    A Surgical Oncologist Practicing In The City Of Mumbai

    • Experience of a decade in treating cancer
    • Expertise in Laparoscopic cancer surgery, Robotic cancer surgery
    • Expertise in Digestive System Cancers, Colorectal cancers , Peritoneal cancers, advanced abdominal cancers
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