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Dr. Praveen Kammar

MS, MRCS, MCH

Surgical Oncologist

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Stomach Tumor | 13 May 2022, Friday

What Are the Types of Gastric Cancer?

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Cancer that begins in the stomach and spreads throughout the body is called stomach cancer (also known as gastric cancer). Located in the upper centre of your abdomen, just below the ribs, is where your stomach is located. Your stomach retains the food you eat, breaks it down and absorbs vital nutrients before pushing it further into the small intestines.

Stomach has 4 parts- Fundus, Body, Antrum and pylorus. It is possible to develop stomach cancer, also known as gastric cancer, in any part of the stomach.

The position of the tumour in the stomach is one factor that doctors examine when evaluating your treatment options. Surgical removal of stomach cancer is the most common method of treatment. The cancer doctor may recommend additional treatments before and after surgery.

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Types of gastric cancer in detail

Gastric cancer may be classified into the following types:

– Adenocarcinomas

Adenocarcinomas are the most common kind of stomach cancer, accounting for around 90% to 95% of all cases. Gland cells in the stomach’s innermost lining (the mucosa) are the source of these cancers.

It’s nearly invariably an adenocarcinoma if you’re informed you have stomach cancer.

There are several varieties of adenocarcinoma of the stomach. Earlier adenocarcinoma were classified into 3 categories ( Lauren’s classification). But now WHO ( World Health Organization) classifies adenocarcinomas in 10 different types.

– Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs)

These rare cancers begin in very early kinds of cells in the stomach’s wall, known as interstitial cells of Cajal, and progress from there. Certain GISTs are significantly more prone than others to expand to other body regions or to develop into other sections of the body. While GISTs may begin anywhere in the digestive system, most begin in the stomach.

– Neuroendocrine tumours (including carcinoids)

Neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) begin in cells in the stomach (or other areas of the digestive system) that function in some areas like nerve cells and others like hormone-producing (endocrine) cells.

They are a kind of cancer that affects the digestive tract. While most neuroendocrine tumours develop slowly and do not migrate to other organs, a few are capable of growing fast and spreading to other areas of the body.

– Lymphomas

Immune system cells known as lymphocytes are at the root of these cancers’ development. In contrast to most malignancies, lymphomas often develop in bone marrow; nonetheless, certain lymphomas may develop in the stomach’s wall. The kind of lymphoma present and other factors determine the treatment and prognosis of malignant tumours.

– Other cancers

Several other forms of cancer, such as squamous cell carcinomas, small cell carcinomas, and leiomyosarcomas, may also begin in the stomach. However, these malignancies are very uncommon in the general population.

When to see a doctor

There are some similarities between the symptoms of stomach cancer and the symptoms of other disorders.

The following are some of the symptoms of gastric cancer:

  • Having a bloated stomach after eating
  • Heartburn
  • A lack of desire to eat
  • Nausea
  • Stomach aches and pains (indigestion or dyspepsia)

In advanced gastric cancer, further symptoms may appear. These signs and symptoms might indicate that the tumours are growing:

  • Pain in the abdomen
  • A bloody or tarry stool
  • Having trouble swallowing
  • Diarrhoea or constipation
  • Fatigue
  • Distention of the stomach (bloating)
  • Unwanted weight reduction
  • Vomiting
  • Weakness
  • Yellowing of the eyes or skin (jaundice)

Experiencing symptoms from time to time, such as after a hefty meal, does not always indicate that gastric cancer is there.

Speaking to a gastrointestinal specialist about any stomach issues can aid in determining whether or not there is a need to have any tests performed in the future.

Conclusion

It is essential to consult a doctor if you are experiencing stomach cancer symptoms that have lasted for more than a few weeks to evaluate whether further testing is warranted.

Patients with a higher risk of stomach cancer, on the other hand, could undergo more regular testing to discover the condition early.

It is possible to lower the risk of cancer by quitting smoking, eating a nutritious diet rich in fruits and vegetables, and receiving regular treatment for any associated diseases, among other things.

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