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The Silent Threat: Hepatocellular Carcinoma Unveiled

hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common type of liver cancer worldwide. This article will provide an in-depth understanding of HCC, focusing on its causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment options, survival rates, and prevention strategies.

We aim to empower you with valuable information that can help you navigate this disease, whether you are a patient, caregiver, or simply seeking knowledge about liver health.


What is Hepatocellular Carcinoma?

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a type of liver cancer originating in the hepatocytes, the liver’s primary functional cells.

HCC often develops in individuals with underlying chronic liver diseases such as hepatitis B or C, liver cirrhosis, or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

It is important to note that while HCC is more prevalent in specific high-risk populations, it can affect anyone, regardless of age, gender, or ethnicity.

Hepatocellular Carcinoma Symptoms

Early-stage HCC may not present any noticeable symptoms, making regular screenings and check-ups crucial for early detection.

As the disease progresses, symptoms may include:

  • Persistent fatigue
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Abdominal pain or discomfort
  • Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes)
  • Abdominal swelling
  • Easy bruising or bleeding
  • Changes in appetite.

If you experience any of these symptoms, it is essential to consult an oncologist for further evaluation.

If you notice any of the symptoms, you must visit a Liver Cancer specialist in mumbai Dr. Praveen Kammar, at the earliest. 

Hepatocellular Carcinoma Risk Factors

Several factors increase the risk of developing HCC. Chronic viral infections, particularly hepatitis B and C, significantly contribute to HCC worldwide.

Other risk factors include excessive alcohol consumption, obesity, exposure to certain toxins and chemicals, and underlying liver diseases such as cirrhosis and NAFLD.

Individuals with a family history of HCC or certain genetic conditions may also be at higher risk.

Causes of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Symptoms Liver Cancer

Understanding the causes of HCC is essential for prevention and early intervention. Chronic inflammation of the liver cells, caused by viral infections or other factors, can lead to DNA damage and the development of cancerous cells.

In cases of cirrhosis, prolonged scarring and regeneration of liver tissue increase the risk of HCC. It is essential to manage underlying liver conditions, receive vaccinations for hepatitis B, and maintain a healthy lifestyle to reduce the risk of HCC.

Hepatocellular Carcinoma Diagnosis

Diagnosing HCC involves a combination of medical history evaluations, physical examinations, blood tests, imaging studies, and sometimes liver biopsies.

Blood tests may detect elevated levels of specific proteins and enzymes associated with liver function. At the same time, imaging techniques such as ultrasound, CT scans, or MRI can provide detailed images of the liver and detect abnormalities.

A liver biopsy may be performed to confirm the presence of cancerous cells, however it is done mainly for nonsurgical treatments.

Stages of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

HCC is staged based on the size and number of tumors, their spread within the liver, and whether the cancer has metastasised to other organs.

The most commonly used staging system for HCC is the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system. This system helps determine the appropriate treatment options based on the cancer stage and the patient’s overall health.


Hepatocellular Carcinoma Treatment Options

The choice of treatment for HCC depends on several factors, including the stage of the cancer, the overall health of the patient, and the available resources.

Liver Cancer Treatment

Treatment options may include surgical interventions such as resection (partial removal of the liver) or liver transplantation, local therapies like radiofrequency ablation or transarterial chemoembolisation, and systemic therapies such as targeted therapy or immunotherapy.

The multidisciplinary approach involving oncologists, hepatologists, surgeons, and other specialists ensures personalised and comprehensive care.

Hepatocellular Carcinoma Survival Rates

Survival rates for HCC vary depending on factors such as the stage at diagnosis, overall health, response to treatment, and other individual characteristics.

For early-stage HCC, surgical interventions offer a better chance of long-term survival. However, in advanced stages, treatment aims to manage symptoms, slow disease progression, and improve quality of life.

Adherence to treatment plans, regular follow-up visits, and lifestyle modifications can positively impact survival rates. It is essential to have open discussions with the oncologist regarding prognosis and available support services.

Prevention of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Prevention plays a crucial role in reducing the incidence of HCC. Vaccination against hepatitis B is highly effective in preventing chronic infections and subsequent liver damage.

Safe needle practices, such as using sterile needles for injections and avoiding needle-sharing, can also minimise the risk of contracting hepatitis B or C. It is essential to practice safe sex and use barrier methods to prevent transmission of hepatitis viruses.

Maintaining a healthy lifestyle is equally important in preventing HCC. Limiting alcohol consumption, avoiding excessive intake of fatty foods, and maintaining a healthy weight can help reduce the risk of liver diseases such as cirrhosis and NAFLD, major predisposing factors for HCC.

Regular exercise, a balanced diet rich in fruits and vegetables, and staying hydrated benefit overall liver health.

Regular screenings and check-ups are essential for early detection of liver diseases and HCC. Suppose you belong to a high-risk group, such as individuals with chronic viral infections or underlying liver diseases.

In that case, it is essential to consult an oncologist about appropriate screening protocols. Early diagnosis significantly improves treatment outcomes and survival rates.

In addition to these preventive measures, ongoing research is being conducted to develop new strategies for preventing HCC.

This includes studying the role of antiviral therapies, immune-based interventions, and targeted therapies to inhibit the growth and progression of liver cancer cells.


Hepatocellular carcinoma is a complex disease requiring a comprehensive prevention, diagnosis, and treatment approach. By understanding the risk factors, symptoms, and available interventions, individuals and oncologists can work together to prevent, detect, and manage HCC effectively.

Emphasising vaccinations, safe practices, healthy lifestyles, and regular screenings can significantly reduce the burden of HCC and improve overall liver health.

Remember, knowledge is power, and by staying informed and proactive, we can make a difference in the fight against hepatocellular carcinoma.


    About Author
    Dr. Praveen Kammar

    Surgical Oncologist


    Years Of Experience

    Dr. Praveen Kammar is a Best Surgical Oncologist in Mumbai. His main area of expertise aslso includes GI oncology, Gynecological cancers, minimal access surgeries, Robotics surgery, Laparoscopic Surgery, HIPEC.

    Dr. Praveen has done more than 6000+ surgeries in his expertise.

    More About Doctor


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